The Nature of Reality
What is real? What is the universe made of? How does it work? Physics has always been an attempt to understand these questions. In the twentieth century, physics has developed two very powerful ways of looking at the world. The first was General Relativity, developed by Albert Einstein, which describes how gravity works. This theory is very successful at describing the actions of stars, galaxies, and objects on the largest scales. The other theory is called Quantum Mechanics and it is used to describe objects on microscopic scales - such as atoms, electrons, protons, etc.

Our understanding of how the universe works, in general, takes one of two distinct forms: either one wishes to have a conceptual understanding of nature, usually via analogies with every day experiences, or one is searching for the ability to quantitatively predict the future. Unlike classical physics (ie, physics before the twentieth century), quantum mechanics has defied, for several decades, attempts to develop a conceptual picture of nature. It is hard to argue that quantum mechanics is not a good description of how nature works since physicists can use it to predict the outcomes of experiments with a high degree of precision. Despite this, quantum mechanics seems to be incompatible with both our everyday experiences and with the theory of General Relativity.

These pages are an attempt to detail this conflict.

The EPR Paradox
The EPR Paper
This section will go through the argument in the EPR paper.
The paradox according to Einstein
Athough officially Einstein published his critiques in the famous EPR paper, his letters describing the paradox to his collegues seem to put the paradox in a different light. What appears to be Einsteins viewpoint is discussed here.

John Bell and Hidden Variables
This section will describe how John Bell proposed a solution to the EPR paradox. This solution involves hidden variables and some properties which they would have to have in order to get around the EPR paradox.

Aspect Experiments & the TEST
  1. A description of the experiment
  2. Quantum Mechanics - this section is an analysis of this experiment from the quantum mechanical point of view, including a prediction for the outcome.
  3. Hidden Variables - this section will analyse the same experiment from a deterministic point of view (hidden variables approach) and attempt to put constraints on the outcome.
  4. The results

Where are we now?
Given the results of the Aspect experiments, what are the implications for modern physics, relativity, and the future of physics.

A list of works used in this paper, and other related items which might be of interest

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